A Dictionary of Literary Symbols (2nd Edition) by Michael Ferber

By Michael Ferber

This can be the 1st dictionary of symbols to be in accordance with literature, instead of 'universal' mental archetypes or myths. It explains and illustrates the literary symbols that all of us usually come across (such as swan, rose, moon, gold), and offers 1000's of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, yet its entries diversity largely from the Bible and classical authors to the 20th century, taking in American and ecu literatures. For this re-creation, Michael Ferber has incorporated over twenty thoroughly new entries (including endure, holly, sunflower and tower), and has further to the various present entries. Enlarged and enriched from the 1st variation, its educated sort and wealthy references make this ebook a necessary device not just for literary and classical students, yet for all scholars of literature.

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The following transcribes, in English, a fragment of Borges’s review. In the original all of the quotations appear in Spanish including the Whitman quotation, which Borges presents not as a translation but as an equivalent to the original in order to contrast it to Felipe’s translation, which Borges considers a dismal failure (the original Spanish texts of Borges’s “copy” and of Felipe’s “translation” are both in the endnote): Whitman writes (“Song of Myself”): Walt Whitman, a cosmos, from Manhattan the son Turbulent, carnal, sensual, eating, drinking, engendering.

However, those linguistic aspects that cannot be reproduced in translation do not cause Borges any more anxiety than the fact that a paraphrase is never identical with its original. In general one paraphrases to underscore certain features of a text while ignoring others, and one generally translates to underscore certain aspects of an original while downplaying others. ”19 Where the cadences of the original are lost, the translator may be able to find new cadences that did not exist in the original.

He accused his fellow Hellenist of bad faith and wrote an entire book to acquit himself of the poet’s objections. The so-called “strange English constructions,” so discordant to Arnold, were inevitable because they reflect Homer’s peculiarities. A Homeric translation ought to sound strange to a contemporary reader because ancient Greek is as foreign to an Englishman of the nineteenth century as the ancient world itself. Had he eliminated the peculiarities of ancient Greek, including the double epithets and other constructions Arnold disliked, he would not have captured the essence of Homer.

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