Air Pollution by R. S. Scorer and R. S. Scorer (Auth.)

By R. S. Scorer and R. S. Scorer (Auth.)

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T h u s the indestructibility o f the p o l l u t i o n is represented in this case (see F i g . 9 ) b y (1 = UPm^^i(^l +COS^ynrd (11) from which O (12) πΚ^υ and i* = ^ ^ m a x í l + c o s ^ | - O r < R r > R (13) M o d i f i c a t i o n s can r e a d i l y b e m a d e to f o r m u l a e o f this k i n d for cases in w h i c h the sideways spread is g r e a t e r t h a n u p w a r d s a n d d o w n w a r d s . I f the u p w a r d s spread is g r e a t e r t h a n d o w n w a r d s , the axis o f the c o n e m a y b e tilted u p w a r d s a little.

M e a s u r e o f the p l u m e w i d t h a n d is a function o f distance d o w n w i n d , a n d the distri­ b u t i o n chosen has t o b e m u l t i p l i e d b y a suitable constant so that the total transport across a v e r t i c a l p l a n e is e q u a l t o the source strength. F o r e x a m p l e , i f the first f o r m u l a is chosen a n d the p l u m e is assumed to h a v e a circular cross-section o f radius R, a n d Ρ is the p o l l u t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d U the w i n d speed, a source emitting a quantity o f p o l l u t i o n in unit t i m e p r o d u c e s a d o w n w i n d flux e q u a l to 0 , = UPdS w h e r e the i n t e g r a t i o n is o v e r the w h o l e a r e a o f a (10) transverse 36 AIR POLLUTION section o f the p l u m e .

S a m p l e s taken o v e r shorter p e r i o d s w i l l not b e f o u n d t o h a v e the m a x i m u m i n m o r e o r less the same p l a c e , a n d samples taken over much longer p e r i o d s s h o w a g r a d u a l increase i n the spread as the t i m e is increased, a n d this continues i n d e f i n i t e l y : the m e a n i n g f u l t i m e is the shortest o n e w h i c h does n o t s h o w a significant shift i n t h e c e n t r e o f the distribution f r o m o n e s a m p l e t o the n e x t , a n d for measuring the maximum ground level concentration this is usually a b o u t the t i m e taken for the w i n d t o c a r r y the a i r a D I L U T I O N : F O R M U L A E A N D MECHANISMS distance oí' a b o u t fifteen 39 times the h e i g h t o f the source a b o v e the g r o u n d .

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